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Agricultural Waste

Amongst the agro-based industries, pollution from palm oil and rubber processing mills is the most severe. Wastes from these industries contain very high concentrations of organic material, suspended solids, nitrogen and phosphorus, while rejected agricultural materials such as straw, leaves and other by-products, which are burned, dumped and disposed of, account for nearly half of all agricultural production. In Peninsular Malaysia, a total of 4.2 million tons of crop residue and 2.3 million tons of livestock waste were produced. Agricultural waste from livestock farms and pesticides and fertilizers constitute the second highest source of organic pollutants polluting our rivers and coastal waters, second only to sewage. From 1986 to 1990, agricultural waste contributed 13 percent of the total BOD pollution load.

Acid Rain

Acid rain is caused when coal or oil is burned, which in turn generate vast amounts of polluting gases. Airborne by-products of certain industrial processes add to the pollution. Rain acidity in Peninsular Malaysia is on the rise and the number of areas affected by acid rain is growing. A Malaysian Meteorological Service (MMS) study shows that Malaysia is beginning to experience effects of acid rain similar to those in such industrialized countries as the United Kingdom, Japan and the United States. Areas most seriously affected by acid rain are Kuala Lumpur, Johor, Kedah and Selangor, while rain acidity in Petaling Jaya and Senai has gone up four times from 1985 to 1988.

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